Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Ghana
Challenges and Implications for Social Work
Keywords:Inclusive education, children with intellectual disability, social workers, Ghana
Inclusive education in Ghana is in its infancy. Due to the wide array of challenges that may be encountered in the effort to implement inclusive education, programs are needed that involve a cross-section of professionals including social workers. In this study, in-depth face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from 15 educators and social workers about the challenges associated with inclusive education for children with intellectual disability (ID) in Ghana and the implications that these challenges have for social work practice in the education system. Some key roles that social workers can play in inclusive education in Ghana include intensifying public awareness to curb misconceptions about IDs, and serving as liaisons between the school, home, and community. A system is needed that fosters effective collaboration between educators and social workers to enhance educational outcomes for children with ID in inclusive school settings in Ghana.
Adera, B. A., & Asimeng-Boahene, L. (2011). The perils and promises of inclusive education in Ghana. The Journal of International Association of Special Education, 12(1), 28-32.
Agbenyega, J. (2003, December). The power of labeling discourse in the construction of disability in Ghana. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) Conference, Newcastle, Association of Active Educational Researchers. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=AFE5FA5938F6694A3E2B7E3F44BDED54?doi=10.1.1.214.8974&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Agbenyega, J. (2007). Examining teachers’ concerns and attitudes to inclusive education in Ghana. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 3(1), 41-56.
Agbenyega, J., & Deku, P. (2011). Building new identities in teacher preparation for inclusive education in Ghana. Current Issues in Education, 14(1), 1-37.
Altshuler, S. J., & Kopels, S. (2003). Advocating in schools for children with disabilities: What’s new with IDEA? Social Work, 48(3), 320-329.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disability [AAIDD]. (2013). Frequently asked questions on intellectual disability. Retrieved April 10, 2014, http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition/faqs-on-intellectual-disability#.U0yFfKLXyHt
Ametepee, L. K., & Anastasiou, D. (2015). Special and inclusive education in Ghana: Status and progress, challenges and implications. International Journal of Educational Development, 41, 143-152.
Anthony, J. H. (2009a). Towards inclusion: Influences of culture and internationalization on personhood, educational access, policy and provision for students with autism in Ghana (Doctoral thesis). University of Sussex, United Kingdom). Retrieved from http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/2347/1/Anthony%2C_Jane_H..pdf
Anthony, J. H. (2009b). Access to education for students with autism in Ghana: Implications for EFA. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2010. Reaching the marginalized: UNESCO. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186588
Avoke, M. (2002). Models of disability in the labeling and attitudinal discourse in Ghana. Disability & Society, 17(7), 769-777.
Bean, K. F. (2011). Social workers’ role in the disproportionality of African American students in special education. Advances in Social Work, 12(2), 363-375.
Bigby, C., & Frawley, P. (2010). Social work practice and intellectual disability. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Botts, B. H., & Evans, W. H. (2010). Ghana: Disability and spirituality. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 13, 32-39.
Botts, B. H., & Owusu, N. A. (2013). The state of inclusive education in Ghana, West Africa. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 57(3), 135-143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988x.2013.798776
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Clark, K. (2007). The social worker as facilitator in inclusive education (Masters of Social Work thesis). University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Retrieved from https://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/1789
Creswell, J. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), SAGE handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 45-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781506335193.n2
Cummins, L., Sevel, J., & Pedrick, L. (2006). Social work skills demonstrated (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
Damyanov, K. (2010). Social work and inclusive education of children and pupils with special educational needs. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 8(3), 278-282.
De la Rocha, K. (2011). Intellectual disability (Cognitive disability; developmental disability; mental retardation). Retrieved from https://www.wkhs.com/health-resources/health-library/article?chunkid=96644&lang=English&db=hlt
Gallagher, P. A., Malone, D. M., & Ladner, J. R. (2009). Social-psychological support personnel: attitudes and perceptions of teamwork supporting children with disabilities. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 8, 1-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15367100802665540
Ghana Education Service, Special Education Division. (2007). Initiatives in implementation of inclusive education: Descriptive models [Slideshow presentation]. Retrieved from https://slideplayer.com/slide/1730285/
Ghana Statistical Service. (2012). 2010 Population and housing census: Summary report of final results. Accra, Ghana: Author. Retrieved from http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/gssmain/storage/img/marqueeupdater/Census2010_Summary_report_of_final_results.pdf
Gyimah, E. K., Sugden, D., & Pearson, S. (2009). Inclusion of children with special educational needs in mainstream schools in Ghana: Influence of teachers’ and children’s characteristics. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(8), 787-804. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110802110313
Harris, J. C. (2006). Intellectual disability: Understanding its development, causes, classification, evaluation, and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hooker, M. (2007, October). Concept note: Developing a model for inclusive education and assistive technology appropriate for teaching and learning contexts in developing countries. Paper presented at Global eSchools and Community Intiative (GeSCI). Dublin, Ireland. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266090558_Concept_note_Developing_a_model_for_inclusive_education_and_assistive_technology_appropriate_for_teaching_and_learning_contexts_in_developing_countries
Inclusion Ghana. (2011). Report on the level of stigmatization, discrimination and exclusion of persons with intellectual disability and their families in Ghana. Accra: Author. Retrieved from https://www.inclusion-ghana.org/resources/reports/Baseline%20Report%20-%20Easy%20Read%20Version.pdf
Inclusion Ghana. (2013). Access to health care for persons with intellectual disabilities in Ghana: Mapping the issues and reviewing the evidence. Accra: Author. Retrieved from https://www.inclusion-ghana.org/resources/reports/Access%20to%20Health%20Care%20for%20Persons%20with%20ID%20in%20Ghana.pdf
Lee, S., Soukup, J. H., Little T. D., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2009). Student and teacher variables contributing to access to the general education curriculum for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 43(1), 29-44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466907313449
Loreman, T. (2007). Seven pillars of support for inclusive education: Moving from “why?” to “how?” International Journal of Whole Schooling, 3(2), 22-38.
Maul, C. A., & Singer, G. H. S. (2009). ''Just good different things'': Specific accommodations families make to positively adapt to their children with developmental disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29, 155-170. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121408328516
Ministry of Education. (2003). Education strategic plan: ESP 2003 to 2015. Volume 1 - Policies, targets and strategies. Government of Ghana, Accra: Author. Retrieved from http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_education_strategic_plan.pdf
Ministry of Education. (2012). Education strategic plan: ESP Strategies and Work Programme, 2010 – 2020. Government of Ghana, Accra: Author. Retrieved from http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_esp_2010_2020_vol2.pdf
Mittler, P., Jackson, S., & Sebba, J. (2002). Social exclusion and education. MCC: Building Knowledge for Integrated Care, 10(3), 5-15.
Naami, A., & Hayashi, R. (2012). Perceptions about disability among Ghanaian university students. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 11(2), 100-111. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1536710x.2012.677616
Obi, E., Mamah, V., & Avoke, K. (2007). Inclusive education in an emerging country: The state of teacher preparedness in Ghana. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 10, 31-39.
Ocloo, M. A., & Subbey, M. (2008). Perception of basic education school teachers towards inclusive education in the Hohoe District of Ghana. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(5-6), 639-650.
Openshaw, L. (2008). Social work in schools: Principles and practices. New York: Guilford.
Porter, G. L., & Smith, D. (Eds.). (2011). Exploring inclusive practices through professional enquiry. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Price-Mitchell, M. (2009). Boundary dynamics: Implications for building parent-school partnerships. The School Community Journal, 19, 9-26.
Pryor, C. B., Kent, C., McGunn, C., & LeRoy, B. (1996). Redesigning social work in inclusive schools. Social Work, 41(6), 668-676.
Reiter, S., & Vitani, T. (2007). Inclusion of students with autism: The effect of an intervention program on the regular students’ burnout, attitudes and quality of mediation. Autism, 11(4), 321-333.
Reynolds, S. (2010). Disability culture in West Africa: Qualitative research indicating barriers and progress in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Occupational Therapy International, 17(4), 198-207. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/oti.303
Schalock, R. L, Luckasson, R. A., Shogren, K. A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W. H. E., …Yeager, M. H. (2007). The renaming of mental retardation: Understanding the change to the term intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116-124.
School Social Workers Association of Ghana [SSWAG] (n.d.). Retrieved from https://me-kono.eu/institutions/school-social-work-association-of-ghana-sswag%20Sharma, U., Loreman, T., & Macanawai, S. (2016). Factors contributing to the implementation of inclusive education in Pacific Island countries. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(4), 397-412.
Suc, L., Bukovec, B., & Karpljuk, D. (2017). The role of inter-professional collaboration in developing inclusive education: Experiences of teachers and occupational therapists in Slovenia. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(9), 938-955.doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1325073
Tassé, M. J. (2009, December). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and systems of supports (11th ed.). Paper presented at the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), Genoa, Italy.
Tchintcharauli, T., & Javakhishvili, N. (2017). Inclusive education in Georgia: Current trends and challenges. British Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 465-483. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12188
Teasley, M. (2004). School social workers and urban education reform with African American children and youth: Realities, advocacy, and strategies for change. The School Community Journal, 14(2), 19-38.
United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. (2007). Ghana human development report: Towards a more inclusive society. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): Ghana Office. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/nhdr_2007_ghana.pdf
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF
United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]. (2012). The right of children with disabilities to education: A rights-based approach to inclusive education. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/UNICEF_Right_to_Education_Children_Disabilities_En_Web.pdf
UNICEF. (2013). The state of the world’s children report: Children with disabilities. New York: Author. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/sowc2013/files/SWCR2013_ENG_Lo_res_24_Apr_2013.pdf
United Nations. (2007). From exclusion to equality: Realizing the rights of persons with disabilities. Handbook for Parliamentarians on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/toolaction/ipuhb.pdf
Von Ahlefeld Nisser, D. (2017). Can collaborative consultation, based on communicative theory, promote an inclusive school culture? Issues in Educational Research, 27(4), 874-891. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier27/von-ahlefeld-nisser.pdf
World Health Organization [WHO]. (2001). Mental and neurological disorders fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/whr/2001/media_centre/en/whr01_fact_sheet1_en.pdf?ua=1
WHO. (2011). World report on disability. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/vdecker/Downloads/9789240685215_eng.pdf
Yekple, Y. E. (2012). Access and enrollment of children with intellectual disability in selected special schools in Ghana: The influence of parental economic status. International Journal of African & African-American Studies, 8(1), 41-50.
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).