Bullying Prevention in Schools
The Need for a Multiple Stakeholder Approach
Keywords:stakeholders, Bully prevention, interventions, schools
Since bullying is an ecological and systemic phenomenon that occurs in multiple contexts with multiple actors, it makes sense to consider the perceptions of multiple stakeholders and their relationships with one another and in relation to bullying prevention in schools. Using a non-probability, purposive sample, this study examined the perspectives of 45 school stakeholders, namely, principals, school social workers, bus drivers, and parents from an urban school district in the Midwest. The study unveils some of the implicit and explicit challenges associated with bullying prevention efforts. For example, bullying can be quite nebulous because people tend to look at the issue through the prism of their own experiences and positions, limiting their understanding of other stakeholders. Some stakeholders’ perspectives may be muted when bullying behaviors are discussed or reported. Overall, the findings support the use of multi-stakeholder approaches in developing a more holistic view of bullying. Recommendations include avoiding the reification of the views and voices of a select few and having a more open system of dialogue among stakeholders to create inclusion when addressing bullying.
Aalsma, M. C., & Brown, J. R. (2008). What is bullying? Journal of Adolescent Health. 43, 101-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.001
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2000). Moving prevention from the fringes into the fabric of school improvement. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 11(1), 7-36. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532768xjepc1101_03
Anderson-Butcher, D., Stetler, E. G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school- community partnerships in support of positive youth development. Children & Schools, 28(3), 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/28.3.155
Beddoe, L. (2019). Managing identity in a host setting: School social workers’ strategies for better interprofessional work in New Zealand schools. Qualitative Social Work, 18(4), 566-582. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325017747961
Bell, K. J., & Willis, W. G. (2016). Teachers’ perceptions of bullying among youth. Journal of Educational Research, 109(2), 159-168.
Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., O'Brennan, L. M., & Gulemetova, M. (2013). Teachers’ and education support professionals’ perspectives on bullying and prevention: Findings from a national education association study. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 280-297.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723-742.
Brown, J. R., Karikari, I., Abraham, S., & Akakpo, T. F. (2018). Left off the route: A qualitative examination of urban bus drivers wanting to be players in the bully prevention solution. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518787204
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth risk behavior survey - Data summary & trends report: 2007-2017.Aalsma, M. C., & Brown, J. R. (2008). What is bullying? Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(2), 101–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.001https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/trendsreport.pdf
Cornell, D., & Limber, S. P. (2015). Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. American Psychologist, 70(4), 333-343. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038558
Dake, J. A., Price, J. H., & Telljohann, S. K. (2003). The nature and extent of bullying at school. Journal of School Health, 73(5), 173-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb03599.x
Dane, B. O., & Simon, B. L. (1991). Resident guests: Social workers in host settings. Social Work, 36(3), 208-213. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/36.3.208
de Lara, E. W. (2008). Bullying and aggression on the school bus: School bus drivers' observations and suggestions. Journal of School Violence, 7(3), 48-70.
Dixon-Woods, M., Agarwal, S., Jones, D., Young, B., & Sutton, A. (2005). Synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence: A review of possible methods. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 10(1), 45-53.
Eden, S., Heiman, T., & Olenik‐Shemesh, D. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions, beliefs and concerns about cyberbullying. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(6), 1036-1052. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01363.x
Espelage, D. L., Polanin, J. R., & Low, S. K. (2014). Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(3), 287-305. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000072
Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I. M., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2005). Bullying: Who does what, when and where? Involvement of children, teachers, and parents in bullying behavior. Health Education Research Theory & Practice, 20(1), 81-91.
Flygare, E., Gill, P. E., & Johansson, B. (2013). Lessons from a concurrent evaluation of eight antibullying programs used in Sweden. American Journal of Evaluation, 34(2), 170-189. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214012471886
Foody, M., Murphy, H., Downes, P., & O’Higgins Norman, J. (2018). Anti-bullying procedures for schools in Ireland: Principals’ responses and perceptions. Pastoral Care in Education, 36(2), 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/02643944.2018.1453859
Fretwell, Q. (2015). Addressing bullying in schools: The perceptions, thoughts and beliefs of middle-school principals. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgia State University, GA.
Gentle-Genitty, C., Kim, J., Yi, E. H., Slater, D., Reynolds, B., & Bragg, N. (2017). Comprehensive assessment of youth violence in five Caribbean countries: Gender and age differences. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 27(7), 745-759. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2016.1273811
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.
Hayes, A. (2017). An examination of teachers’ perceptions of bullying in an urban elementary school. (Doctoral dissertation thesis). Baker University, KS.
Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(4), 311-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.03.003
Hymel, S., & Swearer, S. M. (2015). Four decades of research on school bullying: An introduction. The American Psychologist, 70(4), 293-299.
Kaminska, O., & Foulsham, T. (2013). Understanding sources of social desirability bias in different modes: Evidence from eye-tracking (No. 2013-04). ISER Working Paper Series.https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/91698/1/737967706.pdf
Kim, J. (2017). Building transformative school-community collaboration: A critical paradigm (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lloyd, M. (2018). Domestic violence and education: Examining the impact of domestic violence on young children, children, and young people and the potential role of schools. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2094), 1-11.
McNamee, A., & Mercurio, M. (2008). School-wide intervention in the childhood bullying triangle. Childhood Education, 84(6), 370-378.
Mehta, S. B., Cornell, D., Fan, X., & Gregory, A. (2013). Bullying climate and school engagement in ninth‐grade students. Journal of School Health, 83(1), 45-52.
Melik-Stepanyan, E. (2014). Policies and promising practices to combat bullying in secondary schools. University of Southern California (Dissertation). http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15799coll3/id/385618/rec/1
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Preventing bullying through science, policy, and practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/23482
Newgent, R. A., Lounsbery, K. L., Keller, E. A., Baker, C. R., Cavell, T. A., & Boughfman, E. M. (2009). Differential perceptions of bullying in the schools: A comparison of student, parent, teacher, school counselor, and principal reports. Journal of School Counseling, 7(38), 1-33.http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v7n38.pdf
Noblit G., & Hare, R. (1988). Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing qualitative studies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Nyumba, T. O., Wilson, K., Derrick, C. J., & Mukherjee, N. (2018). The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9(1), 20-32.
Oliveira, F. R., de Menezes, T. A., Irffi, G., & Oliveira, G. R. (2018). Bullying effect on student’s performance. EconomiA, 19(1), 57-73.
Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10114
Olweus, D., & Limber, S. E. (2010). Bullying in school: Evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 124-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01015.x
Padgett, D. K. (2008). Qualitative methods in social work research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Putnam, R. F., Handler, M. W., Ramirez‐Platt, C. M., & Luiselli, J. K. (2003). Improving student bus‐riding behavior through a whole‐school intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36(4), 583-590. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2003.36-583
Reed-Danahay, D. (2005). Locating Bourdieu. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Richard, J. F., Schneider, B. H., & Mallet, P. (2012). Revisiting the whole-school approach to bullying: Really looking at the whole school. School Psychology International, 33(3), 263-284. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034311415906
Robers, S., Zhang, A., Morgan, R.E., & Musu-Gillette, L. (2015). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2014 (NCES 2015-072/NCJ 248036). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.
Ross, S. W., Lund, E. M., Sabey, C., & Charlton, C. (2017). Students’ perspectives on bullying. In L. H. Rosen, K. DeOrnellas, & S. R. Scott (Eds.), Bullying in school (pp. 23-47). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59298-9_2
Shimoni, B. (2017). What is resistance to change? A habitus-oriented approach. Academy of Management Perspectives, 31(4), 257-270.
Slovak, K., & Singer, J. B. (2011). School social workers’ perceptions of cyberbullying. Children & Schools, 33(1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/33.1.5
Soliman, H. (2017). School social workers' perception of school climate: An ecological system perspective. International Journal of School Social Work, 2(1), 257-270.
Vaillancourt, T., Brittain, H., Bennett, L., Arnocky, S., McDougall, P., Hymel, S., ... & Cunningham, L. (2010). Places to avoid: Population-based study of student reports of unsafe and high bullying areas at school. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25(1), 40-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573509358686
Whitley, J., Smith, J. D., & Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Promoting mental health literacy among educators: Critical in school-based prevention and intervention. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(1), 56-70.
Copyright to works published in Advances in Social Work is retained by the author(s).