Advances in Social Work <p><em>Advances in Social Work</em> is a peer-reviewed journal committed to enhancing the linkage among social work practice, research, and education. Accordingly, the journal addresses current issues, challenges, and responses facing social work practice and education. The journal invites discussion and development of innovations in social work practice and their implications for social work research and education. <em>Advances in Social Work</em> seeks to publish empirical, conceptual, and theoretical articles that make substantial contributions to the field in all areas of social work including clinical practice, community organization, social administration, social policy, planning, and program evaluation.</p> IU School of Social Work en-US Advances in Social Work 1527-8565 <p>Copyright to works published in <em>Advances in Social Work</em> is retained by the author(s).</p> Editorial <p>Social work is a diverse, growing, and dynamic profession with new areas of practice emerging all of the time. In the Fall 2018 issue of Advances in Social Work we are pleased to present 14 manuscripts--11 empirical, 3 conceptual--written by 38 authors from 13 states across the U.S., representing the East Coast (CT, FL, MA, NY), the Midwest (KY, IL, IN, MN), the West (CA, ID, OR) and the South (LA, MS). Three papers address cutting-edge issues relevant to social work research, five papers present innovations related to teaching, and seven papers present practice-related advancements. A diverse array of topics are addressed including public access to research, social work in libraries, young minority fathers, social work supervision, virtual teaching, resilience of MSW students, perinatal depression, text-based crisis counseling, gun safety, civic engagement, depression education for high schoolers, SBIRT implementation, evidence-based practice, and self-care among social workers. We are privileged to offer the contribution of these scholars and practitioners to advancing the knowledge base of the profession.</p> Margaret E. Adamek Copyright (c) 2019 Margaret E. Adamek 2019-01-04 2019-01-04 18 4 ii iv 10.18060/22908 Message from the Dean <p>Message from the Dean</p> Tamara Sue Davis Copyright (c) 2019 Tamara Sue Davis 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 18 4 i i 10.18060/22916 Behind the Wall <p>Despite implicit and explicit expectations that research inform their practice, social workers are unlikely to have access to published research articles. The traditional publishing model does not support public access (i.e., no publisher paywall barrier) to scholarly journals. Newer models of publishing allow free access to research including open access publishing and deposit of scholarship in institutional or disciplinary repositories. This study examined public access to articles in the top 25 social work journals. A random sample of article citations from a total of 1,587 was assessed, with the result that 52% of citations had no full-text access. Of the remaining 48% of citations with full-text access, it is questionable most will remain available long term due to possible copyright violations. Citations from the random sample show only minimal usage of institutional or disciplinary repositories as a means of sharing research. Establishing this baseline measure of access to research is an important first step in understanding the barriers for social workers in accessing research to inform practice. Recommendations for increasing access to research include publishing in open access journals and utilizing full text repositories.</p> Kimberly Pendell Copyright (c) 2019 Kimberly Pendell 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1041 1052 10.18060/22180 From Nuisances to Neighbors <p>Public libraries have found themselves, often reluctantly, on the frontline of homelessness. By virtue of being temperature-controlled public spaces with free internet access, libraries provide daytime shelter for thousands of patrons experiencing homelessness. Sometimes considered “problem patrons,” persons experiencing homelessness are at times unfairly targeted by library policies. Violations create the potential for police involvement and arrest, and may contribute to the criminalization of homelessness. Simultaneously, a trend is beginning to emerge of libraries providing or co-locating social services for persons experiencing homelessness. As library services expand, schools of social work have the opportunity to lend both their research and practice expertise. Specifically, schools of social work have the opportunity to partner with public libraries to conduct localized needs assessments of persons experiencing homelessness. Needs assessments should include the direct surveying of patrons, including those experiencing homelessness, to make sure resulting recommendations for library programs and services will be inclusive of all patrons.</p> Mary A. Provence Copyright (c) 2019 Mary A. Provence 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1053 1067 10.18060/22321 Supporting Recruitment and Retention of Young African-American and Hispanic Fathers in Community-Based Parenting Interventions Research <p>Few studies to date have provided strategies for maintaining low rates of attrition when conducting longitudinal, epidemiological, or community-based research with young, minority, urban fathers. This paper highlights lessons learned from a 5-year randomized controlled trial of a fatherhood intervention that designed and implemented state-of-the-art and culturally relevant recruitment and retention methods with 348 young fathers ages 15 to 25. Qualitative findings are drawn from interviews with fathers who had been enrolled in the fatherhood intervention (n=10). While traditional recruitment and retention methods, such as incentives, were employed in this study, non-traditional methods were used as well, such as intensive community outreach, staff relationship development, recruiting specialists, and flexible contact methods. These methods were found to be helpful to young fathers in the study. Future research should incorporate, and further study, such non-traditional methods for recruiting young, minority, urban fathers into studies of parenting programs, including randomized control trials, to improve services for this underserved population.</p> Cristina Mogro-Wilson Crystal Hayes Alysse Melville Loomis Aubri Drake Melanie Martin-Peele Judith Fifield Copyright (c) 2019 Cristina Mogro-Wilson, Crystal Hayes, Alysse Melville Loomis, Aubri Drake, Melanie Martin-Peele, Judith Fifield 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1068 1084 10.18060/22293 Introducing BSW Students to Social Work Supervision Prior to Field <p>Little empirical information exists about how social work students are prepared to utilize supervision in practice. This study describes an experiential exercise designed to introduce BSW students to social work supervision prior to their field experience. MSW students enrolled in a supervision practice course provided mentored supervision to 42 BSW students in an introductory skills course. The skills course involved a progressive role-play that spanned the whole semester. Mixed methods were used to investigate BSW student perceptions of the exercise. According to survey data, BSW students reported a strong working alliance with MSW students and high satisfaction with the supervision they received. Qualitative data revealed two overarching categories of students: 1) students who reported benefiting from the exercise, and 2) students who reported mixed benefits or no benefits. Students who understood the role of the supervisor were also more likely to reported that they benefited from the exercise. Students who were unclear about the role of the supervisor reported mixed or no benefits of the exercise. Recommendations for social work educators relate to the need for educators to provide information on the use of supervision for BSW students, the necessity for guiding student reflections as part of the supervision exercises, and considering the developmental levels of students when crafting educational interventions.</p> Amy Killen Fisher Chris Simmons Susan C. Allen Copyright (c) 2019 Amy Killen Fisher, Chris Simmons, Susan C. Allen 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1085 1102 10.18060/21556 Innovative Strategies for Building Community Among Faculty Who Teach in Virtual Environments <p>A previous qualitative study (Schwartz, Wiley, &amp; Kaplan, 2016) described the faculty experiences and reflections of delivering Master of Social Work (MSW) education via a virtual platform at the University of Southern California, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work during its initial years of operation. Thematic analysis revealed a need for community building amongst geographically diverse faculty. Given social work’s emphasis on the person-in-environment perspective, it is imperative to consider the experiences of those individuals responsible for executing virtual technology-supported programs and delivering education via virtual platforms. The current paper describes innovative institutional and programmatic interventions implemented to promote community and collaboration among faculty who teach virtually. Creating strategic opportunities for virtual and ground-based faculty to connect informally and formally has the potential to foster a culture of inclusivity, connection, and a productive community of practice.</p> Sara L. Schwartz Eugenia L. Weiss June L. Wiley Copyright (c) 2019 Sara L. Schwartz, Eugenia L. Weiss, June L. Wiley 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1103 1112 10.18060/21619 What Doesn’t Kill You <p>The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and resilience in a sample (n=139) of Masters of Social Work (MSW) students. Perceived stress, religious faith, experiential avoidance, and mindfulness were also examined as correlates of resilience. Resilience scores for the MSW students were comparable to general population and college student norms, but ACEs and perceived stress scores were higher. Despite a broad literature supporting associations of high ACE scores with varied measures of physical and psychological problems, this study paradoxically showed a positive relationship between higher ACE scores and resilience. Regression analysis indicated a model including age, ACE scores, experiential avoidance, religious faith, and perceived stress explained 39.2% of the variance in resilience scores. Prior adverse childhood experiences and stronger religious faith are associated with increased resilience, while experiential avoidance and perceived stress are associated with lower resilience. This study provides further evidence that many students come to social work education with substantial trauma histories and experience considerable stress during their studies. Results suggest that social work educators should acknowledge risks associated with avoidant coping, and provide learning experiences aimed at developing students’ capacities for increased awareness and acceptance of challenging experiences—their own and others.</p> Jacky T. Thomas Blake Beecher Copyright (c) 2019 Jacky T. Thomas, Blake Beecher 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1113 1134 10.18060/21589 Perinatal Depression Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Among Graduate Social Work Students <p>The purpose of this study was to identify the proportion of Master of Social Work (MSW) students who received perinatal depression (PD) training as part of their coursework. Additionally, we sought to identify differences in PD knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and openness to further education between students who had received PD training compared to students without PD training. Using a cross-sectional design and convenience sampling, 177 largely female (91.0%), Hispanic (46%), and Caucasian (28.2%) MSW students from five public California universities electronically provided demographic data and completed the Depression in Women's Health Settings scale. Most MSW students reported health/mental health (38%) or children/youth/and families (47.5%) as their field of practice. Twenty-nine MSW students (16.4%) reported receiving PD training, 61% child abuse/neglect training, and 50% domestic violence training. Students with PD training were significantly more knowledgeable and reported having the skills to assess, screen, identify, and care for women with PD symptoms versus students without PD training. Given the well-documented association of PD with child abuse/neglect and domestic violence, early PD screening, identification, and referral information must be incorporated into MSW curricula and continuing education in order to promote maternal-infant well-being outcomes.</p> Deepika Goyal Meekyung Han Copyright (c) 2019 Deepika Goyal, Meekyung Han 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1135 1146 10.18060/21640 Reaching Young People Through Texting-Based Crisis Counseling <p>Texting-based crisis intervention counseling reaches young people who suffer from mental health issues at high rates yet hesitate to seek help. As a new interface, it is neither well-researched nor well-understood. This study examined 49 randomly selected text counseling transcripts and key informant interviews with two counselors to identify unique characteristics of the text counseling process and learn texter reactions to the sessions. Texters presented problems that were similar to those reported in voice-based hotlines. Texters valued the privacy and flexibility of texting that permitted them to receive help immediately rather than delaying. Counselors reported that they must be brief and direct with questions and avoid assigning emphasis to words. The written format required that both parties must be explicit and clear to convey their messages accurately. Both texters and counselors suggested that the texting option might lead young people to seek help that they might otherwise avoid. Recommendations include specialized training on strategies to assess and connect with texters using only the written word and research to develop best practices for texting-based crisis intervention services.</p> Ande Nesmith Copyright (c) 2019 Ande Nesmith 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1147 1164 10.18060/21590 Social Work Practice and Gun Safety in the United States <p class="APA">Public policy debate about guns continues in the United States, with many professional organizations taking strong stands in policy statements. Moreover, many clinical organizations have provided recommendations for practitioners to use with clients to encourage gun safety in the home, particularly for vulnerable populations such as families with young children and those at risk of suicide. Social workers are in an excellent position to encourage gun safety with some of the most at-risk populations; however, clinical guidelines and research on preventing gun violence has lagged in social work compared to other disciplines. In this article we examine the importance of gun safety for social work clients (with special attention to families with children, families experiencing violence, and individuals at risk of suicide), consider the recommendations made by other professional organizations, and provide some initial thoughts about how social workers might engage with the families they serve to reduce the incidence of gun violence.</p> Patricia Logan-Greene Michelle Sperlich Adair Finucane Copyright (c) 2019 Patricia Logan-Greene, Michelle Sperlich, Adair Finucane 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1165 1186 10.18060/21620 Engaging MSW Students in Policy Practice <p>Social policy courses are a staple in social work curricula, particularly in graduate-level social work education. Indeed, policy practice is among the nine social work competencies stipulated by the Council on Social Work Education. The purpose of the present study is to measure the effectiveness of service-learning over traditional-learning methods in obtaining civic and course-learning outcomes. This study utilized a purposive sample of 89 graduate-level social work students enrolled in advanced social policy courses (30 in a service-learning section, and 59 in traditional sections). Employing a quasi-experimental design, this study found that service-learning is associated with better civic and course-learning outcomes. Service-learning may be utilized to enhance policy practice efficacy based on knowledge, skills, values, and competence.&nbsp;</p> Younghee Lim Mi-Youn Yang Elaine M. Maccio Trey Bickham Copyright (c) 2019 Younghee Lim, Mi-Youn Yang, Elaine M. Maccio, Trey Bickham 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1187 1205 10.18060/22414 Depression Education As Primary Prevention <p>Major depression is a treatable and common mental health disorder for youth. Untreated depression is a major risk factor for youth who become suicidal and die by suicide. Recent focus in the school-based literature on creating universal mental health promotion programs have recognized the need for effective depression awareness education programs to assist youth in identifying symptoms of depression in themselves and their peers, and to encourage those youth to seek trusted adults for help. A quasi-experimental design (QED) was employed in two suburban Chicago high schools (n=652) to evaluate the intervention, Real Teenagers Talking About Adolescent Depression (RTTAAD), a video-based universal classroom discussion intervention created by clinical social workers, parents, and youth. The analysis showed that RTTAAD led to statistically significant changes in adolescent knowledge about depression and their stated willingness to seek help from trusted adults at 6-week follow-up compared to a control classroom condition. This study supports the notion that school social workers and other school mental health professionals need to allocate more time to primary prevention work to help build mental health awareness in their school communities and to help prevent depression and suicidal behavior.</p> Michael Kelly Heather Freed Peggy Kubert Sarah Greibler Copyright (c) 2019 Michael Kelly, Heather Freed, Peggy Kubert, Sarah Greibler 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1206 1217 10.18060/22305 Student, Faculty, and Field Instructor Approaches to SBIRT Implementation <p>Informed by an empirically-based implementation model, this study examined how social work faculty, student, and fieldwork instructor approaches to using the evidence-based SBIRT protocol affected implementation and model fidelity. Data were obtained from two rounds of focus groups with three groups of stakeholders (faculty, students, and fieldwork instructors) about their experiences teaching, learning, using, and supervising SBIRT and were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive process. Analyses yielded three main categories of approaches: those that impeded implementation and model fidelity; those that supported implementation but were not congruent with model fidelity; and those that supported both implementation and model fidelity. Lack of consciousness about model fidelity was an issue across groups. Efforts to find a fit between the protocol, settings, and professional approaches to social work often led to implementation but questionable model fidelity. Repeated exposure to new material and opportunities to engage with it, having specific tools, and supporting learners’ efforts to uphold social work values can promote faithful implementation.</p> Mohan Vinjamuri Lydia P. Ogden Jessica M. Kahn Copyright (c) 2019 Mohan Vinjamuri, Lydia P. Ogden, Jessica M. Kahn 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1218 1236 10.18060/22333 Exploring How Practicing Social Workers Define Evidence-Based Practice <p>This research note presents findings from a study that sought to garner a better understanding of the way in which practicing social workers defined Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). As part of a larger quantitative study, 137 social work practitioners provided a definition for EBP through an online survey and indicated the extent to which they: consider themselves an evidence-based practitioner; believe practitioners should apply EBP in social work; and were prepared through their social work education to use EBP. Content analysis of the practitioners’ definitions of EBP revealed that the majority of respondents described EBP as an intervention or a product versus a process. Regardless of the definition that was provided, descriptive statistics revealed practitioners reported on average that they identified somewhat as an evidence-based practitioner, believed that practitioners should apply EBP in practice moderately to always, and felt only moderately prepared by their social work education for EBP. The findings suggest an opportunity in social work education may exist to further reinforce the process of EBP to delineate it from the evidence-based interventions that may also be taught, especially in clinical programs. Dissemination may also need to occur through mandated continuing education hours, much like ethics has been added as a requirement in some states.</p> Jill M. Chonody Barbra Teater Copyright (c) 2019 Jill M. Chonody, Barbra Teater 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1237 1249 10.18060/22075 Examining Self-Care Among Individuals Employed in Social Work Capacities <p>Increasingly, the social work profession recognizes the need for more attention to self-care. Concomitantly, this growing awareness and ethical commitment is fostering a burgeoning self-care movement. However, despite recognition about the importance of self-care, there is a paucity of research that explicitly examines self-care practices among social workers. This cross-sectional study examined the self-care practices of individuals employed in social work capacities (n=1,011) in one southeastern state in the United States. Findings suggest that participants in the sample engaged in personal and professional self-care practices only moderately. Further, data suggest significant group differences in the practice of self-care, by relationship status, educational attainment, health status, and current financial situation, respectively. Overall, results indicate self-care as a potential area of improvement for participants in this study, in general, and perhaps for individuals employed in social work contexts, more generally.</p> J. Jay Miller Joann Lianekhammy Erlene Grise-Owens Copyright (c) 2019 J. Jay Miller, Joann Lianekhammy, Erlene Grise-Owens 2019-01-02 2019-01-02 18 4 1250 1266 10.18060/22320